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Only a fraction of those who need a malaria drug receive one. A number of barriers to treatment exist, especially for the poorest families, where a large proportion cannot access any formal healthcare. 

Useful resources | Peer-reviewed publications | Projects | News

Useful resources

Training manuals of drug shop trial in Uganda

Use of rapid diagnostic tests by drug shop vendors to improve malaria treatment

PRIME trainer and learner manuals

Nine new workshops, focused on Health Centre Management and Patient Centred Services.

Policy Brief PRIME & PROCESS

Evaluating the impact of a public health centre intervention on management of malaria and health outcomes of children in Uganda: Results from the PRIME & PROCESS studies

Policy brief for IMPACT2 project

Evaluating policies in Tanzania to improve malaria diagnosis and treatment

Policy brief for Afghanistan study

Community Case Management of Malaria in Afghanistan

Policy brief and posters for community management project in Uganda

Use of rapid diagnostic tests to improve malaria treatment in the community in Uganda

Manuels de formation de l'étude en pharmacie en Ouganda

Utilisation des tests de dpistage rapide par les pharmaciens afin d'amliorer le traitement du paludisme

Manuais de formação para ensaio realizado em postos de venda de medicamentos no Uganda

Utilizao de testes de diagnstico rpido por vendedores de postos de venda de medicamentos para melhorar o tratamento da malria

Malaria in the private retail sector: Can use of rapid diagnostic tests in drug shops improve treatment of patients? (Policy brief)

Interventions to improve providers' ability to diagnose and treat uncomplicated Malaria

Literature review from the REACT studies

Peer-reviewed publications

Willingness-to-pay for a rapid malaria diagnostic test and artemisinin-based combination therapy from private drug shops in Mukono district, Uganda

Health Policy and Planning

Understanding interpretations of and responses to childhood fever in the Chikhwawa district of Malawi


Treatment of uncomplicated malaria at public health facilities and medicine retailers in southeastern Nigeria

Malaria Journal

The PROCESS study: a protocol to evaluate the implementation, mechanisms of effect and context of an intervention to enhance public health centres in Tororo, Uganda

Implementation Science

The PRIME trial protocol: evaluating the impact of an intervention implemented in public health centres on management of malaria and health outcomes of children using a cluster-randomised design in Tororo, Uganda

Implementation Science

The Impact of an Intervention to Improve Malaria Care in Public Health Centers on Health Indicators of Children in Tororo, Uganda (PRIME): A Cluster-Randomized Trial

The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

The feasibility of introducing rapid diagnostic tests for malaria in drug shops in Uganda

Malaria Journal

Strengthening patient-centred communication in rural Ugandan health centres: A theory-driven evaluation within a cluster randomized trial


Short report : Rolling Malaria Indicator Surveys (rMIS): A Potential District-Level Malaria Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) tool for program managers

American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Seasonal and geographic differences in treatment-seeking and household cost of febrile illness among children in Malawi

The Malaria Journal

Scale-up of Malaria rapid diagnostic tests and artemisinin-based combination therapy: Challenges and perspectives in Sub-Saharan Africa

PLOS Medicine

Rapid diagnostic tests to improve treatment of malaria and other febrile illnesses: patient randomised effectiveness trial in primary care clinics in Afghanistan

British Medical Journal

Prevalence of Malaria parasitemia and purchase of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) among drug shop clients in two regions in Tanzania with ACT subsidies


Perceptions and utilization of the anti-malarials artemether-lumefantrine and dihydroartemisininpiperaquine in young children in the Chikhwawa District of Malawi: A mixed methods study

Malaria Journal

Overdiagnosis and mistreatment of malaria among febrile patients at primary healthcare level in Afghanistan: observational study

British Medical Journal

Mind the gap: Knowledge and practice of providers treating uncomplicated malaria at public and mission health facilities, pharmacies and drug stores in Cameroon and Nigeria

Health Policy and Planning

Medicine sellers’ perspectives on their role in providing health care in North-West Cameroon: a qualitative study

Health Policy and Planning

Measuring patient adherence to Malaria treatment: A comparison of results from self-report and a customised electronic monitoring device


Malaria prevalence and treatment of febrile patients at health facilities and medicine retailers in Cameroon

Tropical Medicine and International Health

Malaria “diagnosis” and diagnostics in Afghanistan

Qualitative Health Research

Introducing rapid diagnostic tests for malaria into registered drug shops in Uganda: lessons learned and policy implications

Malaria Journal

Introducing rapid diagnostic tests for malaria into drug shops in Uganda: Design and implementation of a cluster randomized trial


Introducing malaria rapid diagnostic tests at registered drug shops in Uganda: Limitations of diagnostic testing in the reality of diagnosis

Social Science and Medicine

Improving access to health care for malaria in Africa: a review of literature on what attracts patients

Malaria Journal

Health facility utilisation changes during the introduction of community case management of malaria in South Western Uganda: An interrupted time series approach


Has Tanzania embraced the green leaf? Results from outlet and household surveys before and after implementation of the affordable medicines facility -Malaria


Getting antimalarials on target: impact of national roll-out of malaria rapid diagnostic tests on health facility treatment in three regions of Tanzania

Tropical Medicine and International Health

Field trial of three different Plasmodium vivaxdetecting rapid diagnostic tests with and without evaporative cool box storage in Afghanistan

Malaria Journal

Effectiveness of provider and community interventions to improve treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Nigeria: A cluster randomized controlled trial


Effect of the Affordable Medicines Facility—malaria (AMFm) on the availability, price, and market share of quality-assured artemisinin-based combination therapies in seven countries: a before-and-after analysis of outlet survey data


Effect of test-based versus presumptive treatment of malaria in under-five children in rural Ghana - A cluster-randomised trial


Economic evaluation of a cluster randomized trial of interventions to improve health workers’ practice in diagnosing and treating uncomplicated Malaria in Cameroon

Value in Health

Differential prevalence of transporter polymorphisms in symptomatic and asymptomatic Falciparum Malaria infections in Uganda

Journal of Infectious Diseases

Designing and implementing interventions to change clinicians’ practice in the management of uncomplicated malaria: lessons from Cameroon

Malaria Journal

Cost-effectiveness of malaria diagnosis using rapid diagnostic tests compared to microscopy or clinical symptoms alone in Afghanistan

Malaria Journal

Composite endpoints for malaria case-management: not simplifying the picture?

Malaria Journal

Communicating the AMFm message: exploring the effect of communication and training interventions on private for-profit provider awareness and knowledge related to a multi-country anti-malarial subsidy intervention

Malaria Journal

Cluster randomized trial of text message reminders to retail staff in Tanzanian drug shops dispensing Artemether-Lumefantrine: Effect on dispenser knowledge and patient adherence

American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Challenging logics of complex intervention trials: Community perspectives of a health care improvement intervention in rural Uganda

Social Science & Medicine

Behind the scenes of the PRIME intervention: designing a complex intervention to improve malaria care at public health centres in Uganda

Global Health Action

Availability and price of malaria rapid diagnostic tests in the public and private health sectors in 2011: results from 10 nationally representative cross-sectional retail surveys.

Tropical Medicine & International Health

Aspirations for quality health care in Uganda: How do we get there?

Human Resources for Health

Are Tanzanian patients attending public facilities or private retailers more likely to adhere to artemisinin-based combination therapy?

Malaria Journal

An economic evaluation of home management of Malaria in Uganda: An interactive markov model


A cost-effectiveness analysis of provider interventions to improve health worker practice in providing treatment for uncomplicated malaria in Cameroon: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Trials Journal

A cost-effectiveness analysis of provider and community interventions to improve the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Nigeria: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Trials Journal

A cluster randomised trial introducing rapid diagnostic tests into registered drug shops in Uganda: Impact on appropriate treatment of Malaria


‘As a clinician, you are not managing lab results, you are managing the patient’: How the enactment of malaria at health facilities in Cameroon compares with new WHO guidelines for the use of malaria tests

Social Science and Medicine

Community case management of malaria: exploring support, capacity and motivation of community medicine distributors in Uganda

Health Policy and Planning


Use of rapid diagnostic tests to improve malaria treatment in the community in Uganda

[Project summary in Français / Português]


The PRIME trial: Improving health centres to reduce childhood malaria in Uganda

[Project summary in Français / Português]


PROCESS: Evaluating how the PRIME intervention worked in practice

[Project summary in Français / Português]


Perceptions and impact of introducing rapid diagnostic tests in drug shops

[Project summary in Français / Português]


Malaria indicator survey to support national control programmes

[Project summary in Français / 

Introducing rapid diagnostic tests in drug shops to improve the targeting of malaria treatment

[Project summary in Français / Português]


IMPACT 2: Evaluating policies in Tanzania to improve malaria diagnosis and treatment

[Project summary in Français / Português]


How perceptions of malaria medication affect adherence

[Project summary in Français / 

Costs and effects of strategies to improve malaria diagnosis and treatment in Nigeria

[Project summary in Français / Português]


Cost-effectiveness of interventions to support the introduction of malaria rapid diagnostic tests in Cameroon

[Project summary in Français / Português]



World Malaria Report 2013: Major progress against disease 'still fragile'

Malaria deaths have declined by 45% globally since 2000 - thanks to prevention and control measures, political commitment and expanded funding. But improving access to diagnosis and

What are the challenges of scaling up rapid diagnostic tests in Sub-Saharan Africa?

The World Health Organization recommends using malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and prescribing antimalarials only to patients who have a positive test result. As programmes gear

Treatments in remote areas urgent to meet Millennium Development Goals

Integrated Community Case Management (iCCM) is a strategy that enables those living beyond the reach of health facilities to access lifesaving treatments. It should be a national priority

The future of community case management of malaria

Motivating volunteers and strengthening support to health systems are critical if community interventions are to become the solution to improving access to primary health care, according

Providing training and supplies to health centres not enough to improve children's health

A trial in a high malaria transmission area in Uganda aimed to improve quality of care for patients with a fever. It showed small improvements in malaria case management, patient satisfaction

Private sector not giving antimalarials to the people they should

A study in Tanzanian drug shops showed that most malaria patients did not receive an antimalarial and most people who obtained one didn’t in fact have malaria.

New publication summarises ACT Consortium findings

"Answering key questions on malaria" is the lay summary of 25 research studies in 10 coutries in Africa and Asia. It is now available to the public at no cost, in English,

Message from our Director - end of 2013

As we wrap up the year, Professor David Schellenberg shares news of recent developments and plans for 2014 in the ACT Consortium.

Malaria testing not a simple fix in the private sector

Drug shops offering quick diagnostic tests for malaria can improve treatment, but regulation by authorities is also needed, researchers warn.

Malaria researchers launch free kit to develop diagnosis and treatment interventions

The malaria community can now use a Starter Kit to develop diagnosis and treatment interventions in endemic countries. ACT Consortium researchers launched the five resources on World

Malaria rapid diagnostic tests and research consortia: Day 2 at ECTMIH 2015

The role of community health workers in malaria diagnosis, the cost-effectiveness of rapid diagnostic tests and the contribution of research consortia to malaria policy were ACT Consortium

Le gaspillage des antipaludéens par les personnels de santé au Nigéria coûte cher

Les prestataires de santé formés aux tests de dépistage rapide (RDT) du paludisme prescrivent encore des médicaments antipaludéens onéreux

Job vacancy: Research Fellow in Health Economics

The ACT Consortium is seeking an enthusiastic Research Fellow to join the Health Economics and Systems Analysis Group (HESA) of the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine.

Improving malaria diagnosis in Asia

Clinicians who use rapid diagnostic tests instead of relying on patients’ symptoms are less likely to overprescribe malaria treatment. The tests are also better at detecting fatal

Improving delivery of malaria treatments

Professor David Schellenberg, Director of the ACT Consortium, discusses their work to improve the way artemisinin-based combination therapies are used to treat malaria, as well as the

Help us improve malaria diagnosis and treatment

The ACT Consortium will announce, in Addis Ababa, activities to help improve malaria diagnosis and treatment. The Ethiopian capital will host the first international summit on Social

Health workers wasting expensive malaria drugs in Nigeria

Health providers trained to perform malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) are still prescribing valuable malaria medicines to patients who do not have malaria, according to new research

Funcionários de saúde na Nigéria desperdiçam medicamentos para a malária dispendiosos

Os fornecedores de serviços de saúde formados para administrar testes de diagnóstico rápido da malária (RDT) continuam a prescrever os valiosos medicamentos

Effective malaria control dramatically reduces deaths

The number of people dying from malaria has fallen dramatically since 2000 and malaria cases are also steadily declining, according to the World Malaria Report 2014. Experts highlight

Diagnostics in malaria treatment and control: Day 1 at ECTMIH 2015

On the first day of the European Congress on Tropical Medicine and International Health in Basel, Switzerland, the ACT Consortium director and investigators presented findings from

Better engagement with communities could improve health care for children with a fever

Supporting communities with health promotion campaigns could help mothers and other caregivers to seek health care for their children, ensuring that they receive prompt, appropriate

Better diagnosis, better malaria control: Event on 20 April 2016

Join us in London or online to commemorate World Malaria Day in an interactive session with free resources and a discussion about the importance of malaria diagnosis and the challenges

ASTMH 2014: Malaria highlights

Bill Gates' announcement to increase malaria funding, strategic plans from the WHO to eliminate malaria and ACT Consortium research results were some of the malaria contributions seen

ACT Consortium researchers present at ASTMH 2014

The 63rd annual meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene takes place between 2-6 November in New Orleans, USA. Find out which research results we will present

Access, targeting, safety and quality of ACT drugs at malaria conference

Delegates debated policy implications for the use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in the public and private health sectors. ACT Consortium members presented research results

'There are more medicines and diagnostic tools, but still no clean water'

Malaria interventions are unlikely to improve health of communities unless the root causes of dysfunctional health systems are tackled, an ACT Consortium researcher told members of